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Two sum problem | Solution

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Problem: Two Sum | LeetCode

Given an array of integers nums and an integer target, return indices of the two numbers such that they add up to target.

You may assume that each input would have exactly one solution, and you may not use the same element twice.

You can return the answer in any order.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [2,7,11,15], target = 9
Output: [0,1]
Output: Because nums[0] + nums[1] == 9, we return [0, 1].

Example 2:

Input: nums = [3,2,4], target = 6
Output: [1,2]

Example 3:

Input: nums = [3,3], target = 6
Output: [0,1]

Constraints:

  • 2 <= nums.length <= 104
  • -109 <= nums[i] <= 109
  • -109 <= target <= 109
  • Only one valid answer exists.

Follow-up: Can you come up with an algorithm that is less than O(n2time complexity?

Solution

1. Brute Force

public int[] twoSum(int[] nums, int target) {
    for (int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++) {
        for (int j = i + 1; j < nums.length; j++) {
            if (nums[j] == target - nums[i]) {
                return new int[] { i, j };
            }
        }
    }
    throw new IllegalArgumentException("No two sum solution");
}

Time complexity: O(n2)
Space complexity: O(1)

2. Using Two-pass Hash Table

public int[] twoSum(int[] nums,  int target) {
    Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
    for (int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++) {
        map.put(nums[i], i);
    }
    for (int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++) {
        int complement = target - nums[i];
        if (map.containsKey(complement) && map.get(complement) != i) {
            return new int[] { i, map.get(complement) };
        }
    }
    throw new IllegalArgumentException("No two sum solution");
}
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Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

3. One pass HashMap approach

Java

public int[] twoSum(int[] nums, int target) {
    Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
    for (int i = 0; i < nums.length; i++) {
        int complement = target - nums[i];
        if (map.containsKey(complement)) {
            return new int[] { map.get(complement), i };
        }
        map.put(nums[i], i);
    }
    throw new IllegalArgumentException("No two sum solution");
}

Python

def twoSum(self, nums, target):
        seen = {}
        for i, v in enumerate(nums):
            remaining = target - v
            if remaining in seen:
                return [seen[remaining], i]
            seen[v] = i
        return []
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